Alright as a general warning I have not yet done any research on this so the following are just my assumptions.
So, the Windows 10 Edition uses the same code base as MCPE and runs on the UWP platform. Since the Windows 10 & Windows Phone 8.1 editions uses DirectX for rendering while Android and iOS uses OpenGL I would assume that They're either using a DirectX wrapper or just have a whole bunch of #ifdef:s in their rendering code (I'm certain it's the first one), everything else should be shared (except UWP specific features of course). So in theory if we could hook the sandboxed UWP version and halt the execution of the app to then inject the binary into an app which we have full control over everything (eg, we could patch live variables on the fly, change the binary before etc). Of course everything like this sounds very well and dandy in theory.
The actually execution though, that's a whole other store. Me personally have no experience at all with on-the-fly patching neither have I done any research how the UWP sandbox works, but I'm sure there's a brave soul out there who dares to go where no other developer/hacker has gone so far and to that person I say good luck.
Upon doing some basic research in where the app data is stored I came across "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps\Microsoft.MinecraftUWP_0.12.1.0_x64__8wekyb3d8bbwe". That screams interesting