So, I actually ran some tests in another world, and it seems to be all villages that are affected. I went to a naturally generated village, rang the bell, and the villagers go towards the bed, but not through the door into the house. I'm in 1.14.1 pre-release 1, so there might be a glitch in there that causes it. Regardless, thanks for your advice.
UPDATE: Yes, it's the pre-release that's causing the bug. I downgraded back to 1.14 and they work fine.