It didn't work. However, I did finally find a fix, if not only a very discrete and lucky one.
I was looking at what my video driver might've been contributing to the problem, considered rolling it back, etc. I ended up coming across this page, and followed all of its automatic suggestions and instructions. Lo and behold, the game ended up working! Keep in mind this is after I un- and re-installed the drivers from safe mode a couple days ago, so I wasn't expecting much to happen. But it worked, and now the client and the browser versions are running fine.