I have tried downloading Minecraft Java Edition, and it downloads just fine. When I double click to open the program from the desktop link, nothing happens. However, the Minecraft icon shows up in the side bar like it is open ,and when I hover over the icon, it shows the sign-in screen. My drivers are up to date.
Try reinstalling. If that doesn´t work, try using the old launcher for now. This can be found on the 'Other Downloads' page on the Minecraft website. I can't give a direct link at the moment, since I am at school. I can help you in a few hours, though. If you did find the old launcher download link, then go ahead!