It might be a little while before I take up my next ship (these ships are a lot of work, and I need a break), but for those who are interested, there is an indie game project that will put any Minecraft Titanic to shame: http://www.titanichg.com/
RodenRage, these ships are absolutely impressive. Your thread drew my interest as we have a builder on our server that builds complete ships. Keep up the good work. I will continue to watch this thread for updates.
Thanks for the compliments. When spring break rolls around, I might get started on another ship. I currently have complete deck plans for the Aquitania and the Queen Mary.
The Aquitania is the lesser known of the two, but she was the last of the great four-funneled steamers. Built in 1914, she was Cunard's answer to White Star's Olympic class. The Mauretania and Lusitania were faster, but smaller compared to the Olympics. Cunard ended building a ship that was somewhat a cross between the Lusitania class and Olympic class, taking the best from each. She served for 36 years, a record that stood until broken by the QEII in 2004.
The Queen Mary is very well known, as she had a long career and was ultimately preserved as a museum ship in Long Beach, CA. At the time of her completion, QM was the largest and fastest ship on the seas. Built in 1936, she was designed with an Art Deco style, a departure from the Edwardian style of older ships like the Titanic, Mauretania and Aquitania. She ultimately served for 31 years.
Construction has begun on the Aquitania. She is both wider and longer than the Olympic class, but has a thin, blade-like bow to help her cut across the water nearly as fast as the Mauretania (23 kts vs 24 kts, respectively), despite being considerably larger.
If anyone is interested in the process I use to build this ships, I'll give you the details.
First, I make an outline of the waterline (see previous post).
Next, I lay out the hull's skeletal structure:
After that, I use the fill command to add the rest in:
Once the lower hull is complete, I again use the fill command to remove the water:
Now, I add in the bulkheads to form the compartments:
After the sinking of the Titanic, Cunard didn't leave anything to chance, and the Aquitania is compartmentalized like a battleship. Many of these bulkheads will run to the upper decks, and some compartments will be covered with a watertight deck. The cargo holds are divided longitudinally to prevent total flooding, and even the chain locker (a small compartment to store the anchor chains) is divided in half with bulkhead. She also has anti-rolling tanks which can be used to compensate for any listing caused by uneven flooding.
I'm pretty interested, because like you pointed out in another thread, our methods are really different. It's always interesting to see how somebody else does it.
I only ever tried to build one ship actually in the water, and after that experience I've built every single one in mid air and used World Edit to put them in the water afterwards!
I normally would do it that way, but I started this right when 1.8 came out, and I wanted to use the new blocks, so I was stuck with vanilla because nothing supported 1.8 yet. I ended up finding that building underwater with night vision potions worked well enough. Of course, now that everything is up to date, I suppose I could try building my next ship out of water and dropping it in.
The Aquitania is considerably larger than the Olympics, though the latter were heavier due to their massive reciprocating engines. She is long enough that you cannot even see the stern with a 16-chunk render distance:
We had a bit of discussion of ship powerplants over on ConfuseACat's Project Jutland thread, so I decided to post some of the specs of the ships I'm working on.
Titanic (Olympic Class)
46,000 hp nominal, 59,000 hp max
Two triple-expansion reciprocating engines producing 15,000 hp each at 75 rpm
One Parson's low-pressure turbine producing 16,000 hp at 165 rpm
29 boilers (24 double-ended, 5 single-ended) with a total of 159 furnaces, 215 psi nominal pressure
Speed: 21 knots (service), 23.5 knots maximum
The Olympic class features a rather unique propulsion system. It is a hybrid system, using both reciprocating engines and a turbine engine. The two reciprocating engines were the largest steam engines ever produced, and stood over 3 stories tall. Each had four cylinders in a triple expansion configuration - a high-pressure cylinder, an intermediate-pressure cylinder and two low-pressure cylinders. The exhaust from the HP cylinder was fed into the IP cylinder, which in turn was fed into the LP cylinder. This arrangement increased efficiency and total power output. When the steam finally left the LP cylinder it was at 7 psia (that's 7 psi absolute, which is below atmospheric pressure!). This fed into the turbine, where it was used to make additional power and increase efficiency even more. After leaving the turbine, the steam was fed into the condensers at 1 psia, just above a total vacuum.
How did they get the pressure so low? It has to do with how the condensers work. Each contains a large amount of tubing through which frigid seawater is pumped. The steam rapidly condenses into water upon contact, and is pumped out of the condenser. Since water occupies much less volume than steam, the condensation process creates a strong vacuum, allowing the turbine to work at below atmospheric pressure. In effect, this resulted in a quadruple expansion system. This arrangement allowed for a very efficient propulsion system (for the time).
Mauretania (Lusitania Class)
68,000 hp nominal, 76,000 hp max, 90,000hp after oil conversion
Two high-pressure turbines driving the outboard propellers
Two low-pressure turbines driving the inboard propellers + two HP reversing turbines
25 boilers (23 double-ended, 2 single-ended) with a total of 144 furnaces
Speed: 24 knots (service) 27 knots maximum
The Lusitania and Mauretania were built for speed, and used the latest in turbine technology. Never before had so much power been installed in a ship. In fact, the two ships had nearly double the installed power of the Invincible class battlecruisers. The Mauretania was slightly faster than her sister, due to use of improved turbines. All this speed came at a cost, however, as both ships used considerably more coal than the larger Olympics. The turbines produced approximately 17,000hp each, and were arranged in a double-expansion system, with the HP turbines exhausting their steam into the LP turbines, which then fed into the condensers. This powerful design allowed the Mauretania to hold the Atlantic crossing record for over 20 years.
One high-pressure turbine on the outboard port propeller + one HP reversing turbine
One intermediate pressure turbine on the outboard starboard propeller + one HP reversing turbine
Two low-pressure turbines on the inboard propellers + two LP reversing turbines
21 double-ended boilers with a total of 168 furnaces
Speed: 23 knots (service), 24 knots maximum
The Aquitania was Cunard's answer to the Olympic class, and though she was not as fast as the Lusitania class, she did manage to outperform the Olympics. She had a rather peculiar turbine arrangement, with a single HP turbine on the port side feeding to an IP turbine on the starboard side, which then fed into the two center LP turbines, making a triple expansion system. The reversing turbines were a double expansion system, with the outboard pair feeding into the inboard pair. Though she has the fewest boilers of the ships listed here, each boiler has four furnaces on a side, instead of three, giving her the most total furnaces. This was pushing the practical limits of the Scotch type (fire tube) boilers, and in a few years, ships would start using Yarrow (water tube) boilers.
As a note, I have tried to accurately model the path of the steam flow in each ship, from the boilers to the condensers. Here is shot of the Aquitania's center engine room (WIP), with a maze of steam pipes. The gold/iron objects are the thrust blocks, with the LP turbines in the background. In the very back, you can see the enormous ducts need to carry the highly expanded steam to the condensers.
That was a really interesting read, and it set me off looking up more information about them. With all that I've read about these liners in the past, I don't think I'd really stopped to consider their powerplants. It's very interesting to see the Cunarders adopting the turbines early while the White Star ships had (mainly) the more old fashioned triple expansion engines. I know that will at least partly be down to the two lines' philosophies of speed for Cunard and luxury for White Star, but a part of me also wonders whether the fact that Lusitania and Mauretania were designed to Admiralty specifications has anything to do with it.