As DuhDerp said, you can't automate jukeboxes in vanilla. However you *can* automate the music playback, although it requires commands. You said "survival only," but a lot of people (myself included) wouldn't consider such a thing to be cheaty at all, since you get no benefit from it (besides the possible calming effect, of course), and there's no other way to do it.
Anyway, if you want to do this, you would just need to build a relatively simple redstone clock circuit that fires one of several command blocks (one song per command block) with `/playsound` for example:
/playsound minecraft:record.cat record @a[r=32]
To use command blocks, you need to be in Creative and have OP permission if you're on a server (and command blocks have to be enabled by the server owner). Once you place the command blocks, though, you can of course go back to Survival.
This wouldn't rely on a jukebox at all, but you could allow the player to start the sequence by running a comparator out of a jukebox to detect when they insert a disc.
So, maybe this isn't ideal, but at least you have a not-too-cheaty vanilla option if you want to do it.