First off, yes video card and graphics card are the same.
Second of all, what is your budget? And what games are you trying to play?
You can upgrade the CPU, however you would need a new motherboard and possibly new ram depending on what CPU you go with.
You can upgrade to an SSD with no issues, I would still keep your old hard drive and use it for extra storage.
As for the video card, you can upgrade it but more video cards will need a new power supply. Also your monitor is pretty low-end, if you're upgrading I would go with a 1080p monitor, they're pretty cheap these days