The Meaning of Life, the Universe, and Everything.
Not behind you
I'd suggest using youtube to search videos on Minecraft (specifically Survival videos) as they usually hold a lot of information you can get. Watching what the youtubers do and don't teaches you. Plus there are plenty of videos that are just survival tips and tricks, which would make learning quicker.
Another way is to learn it yourself, and use advancements as a guide as to what to do in your world.
If you have friends who play, you should try to play with them to learn what they know.
The best way of course is to just play it and don't forget to have fun.
1. Getting a seed with village at start can make the start much easier. It needs to be written when creating the world. Here's one: -3200857569343076362
2. Firstly, it's the best to get some logs for planks and then crafting table and pickaxe.
3. Get stone from below the dirt to build furnaces and stone gearset. You may use stone gear afterwards for a lot time.
4. Spend nights sleeping in bed, sitting in enclosed building (Zombies can break doors only on hard) or fighting once you obtain iron to get a shield. Always remember you can sit in underground room locked off with a trapdoor instead or regular, surface construct.
5. Preferably hold shield in off-hand all time, if you hear characteristic "tsss" equip tool, right click and turn around, shield will protect from creeper blast.
6. Dig straight down, but not 1x1 down, but 1x2/2x1 and stand between the two blocks. After finishing your job, replace one of the lines with cobble and the other with ladders as you go downwards. Press F3 to know your coordinates, once Y (attitude) is around 12 start strip mining. Just build a hall and many 2x1 horizontal tunnels from there, preferably with double layer of stone apart.
7. Remember that not all picks can break all ores.
Wooden pick can mine only coal;
Stone pick can mine copper, iron and lapis;
Iron pick can mine gold, diamonds, redstone and emeralds;
Diamond pick can mine obsidian.
8. Save regular coal, farm a ton of trees and regularly convert logs into charcoal instead. I always smelt my first charcoal using a badly damaged wooden pickaxe, and use that one on 8 more logs to get 8 charcoal, and so on. You can't sell charcoal to villagers, but mineable one - of course.
9. Keep water bucket always in the hotbar. It's very handy for climbing on the surface, surviving falls, and extinguishing lava in dire situations.
10. Baked potatoes or cooked meat are efficient food types, use them.
11. It's easier to move around lava in buckets than spend 10s on each obsidian block with diamond pickaxe.
12. To spare arrows, use crossbow with piercing enchantment. After getting through a mob, arrow is collectible.
13. Keep already secured areas lit, and not yet secured walled off, at least in the overworld.
14. In the nether, build from cobble. Build bunkers with secure entrances and narrow killing slits from slabs, build bridges to get across chasms, build markings towards the portal. Don't build from Netherrack, it blends in, is semi-flammable and can get destroyed by ghasts. Beware the lava.
Don't wander off. Keep ranged weapon handy to kill Ghasts. To get to the end, find a big, reddish-black Nether Fortress, it looks like a cluster of some huge bridges with next to none damage.
Don't get lost, preferably keep 10 obsidian bits and flint and steel with you if you did get lost anyway.
Don't bring compass, clock or map. They malfunction.
15. Fortresses are hazardous places, set up multiple n-shaped slots with 2x1 enterance to take cover from Blazes and keep tall Wither Skeletons at bay.
16. To find the End, you need a decent quality of blaze powder from blaze rods and ender pearls. To get ender pearls, you can either build yourself a 3x3 pool of water and after spotting Endermen, hop inside and provoke them to come to you, or set up a 3x3 roof in the Warped Forest in the Nether.
17. Follow the Eyes of Ender to locate a stronghold, a bunker made of stone brick in the Overworld underworld. Leave a track behind you so that you can come back to the stronghold if you want to explore the End further.
18. Use Eyes of Ender to fill the frame and, if you have the gear, hop in to kill the dragon.
Bring heavy enchanted armor, sword, bow/crossbow and arrows, ladders, water bucket, pickaxe, ton of food.
19. Dragon attacks you if you don't look at it and disengages when stared at. Before killing the big lizard, destroy all crystals on top of obsidian towers. Watch out, they explode, and really hard. You can blow them up using arrows though. Some of crystals are caged to protect them from easy destruction, that's what you brought pickaxe for.
You can always set up a platform 3 blocks below the top, light TNT on top and get on the platform to be safe from the explosion.
20. After all is done, try getting a few shots from (cross)bow at the dragon, and should it ever get near central fountain, close in and slash with sword. It bounces off arrows anyway, but is stuck immobile near ground for a while.
21. After it is killed, collect all the experience and get back if you want, you technically "won".
Gaming in dwarf style: building from stone instead of wood, with emphasis on practicality, underground rather than on surface, coupled with methodical approach to combat and exploiting mass production options whenever convenient.