I wish I could give advice, but I'm only familiar with the Java version myself.
That said, from what I understand, combat in the Bedrock edition is closer to what Java had pre-version 1.9, and there was a split of opinion of which system was better. I have no strong opinion of it either way myself, but just add a small delay between attacks rather than spam clicking.
Health regeneration and hunger loss does seem more aggressive in more recent versions to me too, yes. I don't think it's overdone much, as it encourages you to seek breaks and down time rather than be 100% mindlessly invincible in combat.
As per the lack of chests, was this just in a few places, or have you only found a few, and all lacked chests? Do you have the seed and coordinates for these villages and spawners? Not every house will have a chest, but unless the village is tiny, for the whole one to lack one is unusual (but probably not impossible).
1)if you want to master spider combat, aim a little lower than normal...almost like you're aiming at the block in front of the spider. It's going to feel like you're looking too far down and you'll feel like you should raise your view higher, so it's a good idea to practice with a lone spider with lots of room to back up. It's also a good time to practice spatial awareness to keep track of where ledges, hillsides, and such are that you might get stuck on.
If all else fails, if you have a significant water-body nearby you can swim away for a little bit to give you some room. Land mobs all move much slower in the water (whether they swim or not) and you can pick them off in a safer manner.
2)villages generate with random proceduralness, so they aren't always going to have the correct buildings that have chests. The smallest village I ever came across was in 1.16.1 in a desert and it consisted of a library, a single farm plot, and a well (and strangely, a random path that ran to the ocean and a lonely light post with nothing near it but wooden planking). A village that doesn't have any buildings containing loot chests is actually pretty common, though I think a village with at least one chest is more common. This is probably to account for all the workstations you will generally find. Also, I believe it was changed so that all villages generate with at least one golem (I may be wrong on this). It also seems to me that villages that generate in certain biomes tend to have more stuff than those generating in other biomes, but this might just be a lack of sample size on my end.
3)cave spider spawners only appear in mineshafts and because mineshafts have chest minecarts scattered around the mineshaft (separate from the spawner areas) the cave spider spawners will not come with chests the way the zombie/skeleton/black spider dungeon spawners do. Mineshafts are extra-large and sprawling structures, though, so you might not have explored the areas where the chest minecarts are. The overall number might be a hair too rare given the size of the mineshaft, but generally you should find a good 4-6 so it's not like its exceedingly rare.
4)probably your imagination, though I'm unfamiliar with Bedrock. The fishing strike happens in a randomly chosen interval between 10 seconds and 45 seconds, if I recall. The system was recently changed to make afk fishfarms less viable, however, so there might be some changes I'm not familiar with yet.
1. Windows 10, being Bedrock, lacks the majority of the Combat Update that Java had. There are many more changes beyond the cooldown and shields, most notably that attacks penetrate armor with stronger attacks reducing it more. I'd recommend checking out the Wiki for more information on 1.9.
2. and 3. are mostly just luck-based. Though in all my years, I've never seen a chest in the same room as a cave spider spawner in any version, and I've played Minecraft since TU1 on the 360.
4. This is also RNG, but I'll note the only difference I can think of between versions would be how open water is calculated in Java (since I'm not sure how it's calculated in Bedrock).
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Watch out for the crabocalypse. Some say the day will never come. But it will.
Feel free to drop by for a chat whenever.
If you'd like to talk with me about other games, here are a few I play.
Team Fortress 2
Borderlands series (Borderlands 2 is my favorite game, ever. TPS combat is a lot of fun and makes up for the lower-quality story, in my opinion)
Elder Scrolls series
Warframe (IGN is something like That_One_Flesh_Atronach)
Pokémon series (HGSS forever)
Left 4 Dead 2 (Boomer files always corrupt though)
SUPERHOT (SUPERHOT is the most innovative shooter I've played in years!)
Dead Rising series (Dead Rising 2 is one of my favorite games, and the 3rd was a lot of fun. 1st has poor survivor AI and the 4th is bad)
Just Cause series
Come to think of it, I mainly play fighting-based games.
cave spiders are ok with me if you use iron or diamond sword. if you find a bunch of them with a spawner, i did that once, restrict how they can get to you with blocks so they have one block to move through to attack. then keep moving in on them bit by bit and you can beat them. otherwise, i attack them right away if i have health
villages have no chests sometimes. and no people to boot.
i play maybe a new game each day. i play hard with no map and no chest. makes it a little harder. i might die a couple times the first two days. important to get iron and now that new games have lots of caves to start with. thats a good place to get iron. iron sword and sheers are most important. try new games often to learn the java.
i like fishing but have to kill the spiders first. lucky when i get line the first couple of days. some time the b ites are fast. chas
i just read the post about how to make minecraft fun again. some of the ideas i posted before will be changed by me. that is a good idea to read the post about making minecraft fun again. glad i did. now it becomes more challenging. chas
the only reason to play java is for the mods. if youre not all into modding thats fine. but the only advantage java has over bedrock edition is the mods. mouse tweaks, inventory tweaks and backpacks will immediately make you wonder why you even bother with bedrock. theres plenty other mods out there, personally i couldnt move over to bedrock edition because of mods like quark or more biomes.