Wood: I tend to use spruce a lot, both the plank and the log, although dark oak would be second. (Then Acacia, birch, jungle, oak - in that order!)
Food: Mainly baked potatoes I live of a diet of those, carrots and melons, but mostly baked potatoes.
Weapon: I do like a good powerful sword, although I have a pretty nice bow at the moment but I use a powerful enchanted sword the most. (Maybe I just like hacking mobs to death?!)
Building Block: It used to be terracotta (nee stained clay) when it originally came out, started using it heavily but now it's mosly concrete. I love making it especially with the room set up I have to do it, and the colors are nice and vibrant. It's just a lot of fun to make for me.