I'm not sure if weather will interfere with a daylight sensor or not, but you could hide one on top of your house and run some redstone down inside a tube of redstone lamps. The ones that light up will indicate how far into the day you are, but there won't be much indication of whether the sun is currently rising or falling.
You won't know exactly when the sun has come up, but if you have a window or a skylight you will know it's at least day when light levels increase. Just be aware that mobs could still spawn in shadier spots when it's raining due to the decreased light levels, during thunderstorms they can spawn anywhere.
As Hexalobular points out, you're too close to the village. It would be best to either move farther away or take measures right away to protect the village. Blocking them in well lit houses is the simplest method until you can put up a fence or wall around the village and light up inside it. You are far enough away that a zombie siege won't happen since they only happen if a player is fairly close to the village around midnight.