1. Punch Tree
2. Make Planks
3. Make Crafting Table
3.5. Make Axe (Optional)
4. Punch/Chop more trees
5. Find good place for home (Like a flat open area, or on a mountain. Just wherever you want)
6. Make small house
7. Hunt for animals
8. Make Pick
There are many ways of surviving. In singleplayer, You can simply set it on peaceful and keep digging trees for the day. I fyou want a challenge and hostile mobs will spawn You should chop the taller trees because you dont need to dig the leaves. Make a crafting bench, 16 sticks or so and a wood pick and mine enough stone for a furnace, 2 stone picks and a stone sword to hunt
There are a lot of effective ways to successfully start a survival world. Obviously the first thing you do is punch the nearest trees, make crafting table and furnace, yadda yadda. I would like to point out that cutting the surrounding grass would give you a good amount of seeds to plant for wheat. In turn, wheat can make bread, cake (if you have the other ingredients), and get cows to follow you (they are quite the greedy sons of guns). But make sure the priorities are set. If you aren't on peaceful, then you need to make sure you have a very high saturation food (meat), about a half a stack of cobble for swords, a furnace, picks, and shovels, and a good place to hide out at night. If you don't have a choice, then dig a hole into a mountain until you can build something better (unless you like the cave-man style). If there are no mountains (or you want to stay really close to spawn point), then just dig a staircase 5-10 feet below ground and then hollow that out.
All in all, it really depends on what your gaming preferences are.
If You Want To See What I Do In My Usual Worlds In Survival Mode, Open The Spoiler.
1. Punch A Tree
2. Make Planks
3. Make Crafting Table
4. Make Sticks
5a. Make Pick
5b. Get Food
5c. Dig Dirt w/ Fist
6. Mine 3 Stone
7. (Assuming That You Left The Crafting Table) Make Stone Pick
8. Break Crafting Table
9. Mine More Stone
10. Get Iron
11. Find Coal
(11 Can Be Done Mostly Any Time After "Make A Pick")
12. Make Furnace w/ 8 Cobblestone
13. Smelt Iron w/ Coal
14. Make Iron Pick
15. Make Iron Sword(This Is Fully Optional But Recommended If Playing Easy+)
16. Make Bucket
17. Get Water In The Bucket
18. Find Diamonds (If Over Lava Use Water)
19 Use 24 Iron Make Full Set Iron Armor (Fully Optional, More Recommended For Easy+, But Still Extremely Useful In Peaceful)
20. Go Back To Surface
21. Make House Out Of Wood Logs And Planks
22a. Make Diamond Pick
22b. Find More Diamonds
23. Get Obsidian (14)
24. Make Portal (Optional, Useful For Getting To The End,Use Only 10 Obsidian For This.)
25. Make Enchanting Table
26. Get Sugar Cane, Leather, More Wood
27. Make Books
28. Make Bookshelves (16)
29. Enchant Sword, Pickaxe, Shovel, Axe, Armor, Bow (To Enchant All Tools, Weapons, And Armor, Minimum Levels Required = 270 Levels)
30. Go To End
31. Slay Ender Dragon
32. Get Wither Skulls (3) And Soul Sand (4) From Nether
33. Kill Wither
34. Make Beacon w/ Full Base
You Now Have Yourself A Complete World, Build Anything Else Without A Care In You Minecraft World!
Also: Why Does Every One Mine At Night? (No Reference Intended) I Mine At Any Time Of The Day, Does No One Like Mining?
Well, the first thing you should do is get wood, make a wooden pickaxe, then dig up some stone to make a stone sword. Then go around killing animals (or if you are in a swamp, collect mushrooms) so you can get food. At night, be careful of mobs. Zombies, Spiders, and Creepers are okay to fight with a stone sword and no armor because they can't do much if you keep them away from you with your sword. However, I recommend staying away from skeletons, because those are more dangerous due to long ranged attacks. Find a cave system so you can get a full set of iron. Well, that's how you should start out.
if you spawn in a mushroom biome, life got easier. no mobs will spawn there. sure, they can wander in, but you get a supply of food : right from mooshroom cows. but you proboly didn't, so get wood, make charcoal, kill sheep , make bed, make a 6(lenght)x6(width)x3(hight) wood box, and go from there.