Everything except mushroom island is very close to the spawn in this world.
Spawn where plains meets desert.
Forest a few steps away.
Sheep and horses right at spawn.
A little ways east are some pumpkins, and almost directly below them, an abandoned mineshaft.
Village and Desert temple a few steps north. (Village has library and blacksmith)
West from the desert village is a HUGE system of chasms to explore.
Continuing west just a few dozen blocks is savanna with another village.
Just beyond that village is a river with extreme hills on one side and mesa on the other.
Going north from the desert village is another village on the edge of a jungle biome.
Just a very few blocks due west of this village is a jungle temple.
The jungle is about 500 blocks north.
About 1000 blocks west is taiga biome, and just across the water from that, ice plain, mountains and ice spikes.
Mushroom island is over 6000 blocks north, so if you really need that biome, you'll need to portal there through the nether.
The end portal is around 2000 blocks away, but the nearest woodland mansion is around 12,000 blocks distant.