I love the Java edition of Minecraft. I usually play single player, but sometimes play on a friendly family server and in a LAN.
Yesterday I thought I would give the Windows 10 Bedrock edition a chance. I created a new world and played for several hours. I decided I didn't like it and will stick to Java. I know that there are some major differences between the two editions (like how redstone works) that I didn't see. So I am only judging by the differences I noticed immediately upon starting a new world. Some of the things that annoyed me:
1. The overall feel of the controls was slightly different. I don't know how to describe it - it felt a little sluggish. I have a good computer and both versions run smoothly, so it has nothing to do with performance.
2. Generally speaking, I prefer the sounds in the Java edition. I especially hate the loud munching sound that cows make when you feed them in the Bedrock edition.
3. The animation of the animals running was too comical in the Bedrock edition. On the one hand, trying to lure a sheep or cow with wheat in the Java edition is rather tiresome because the animals move slowly and it is easy to lose their attention. In Bedrock they run at you from a greater distance with their legs flapping ridiculously.
4. In Bedrock I found that growing crops at the start of the game is much more difficult. Harvesting wheat usually only gave me one seed back, so my wheat field didn't expand fast enough. The same goes for beetroot. When I started I had one beetroot seed, and by the time I quit the game four hours later, I only had 3 beetroot plants.
5. Too little bonemeal in the Bedrock edition. See 3. above. In Java you get so many seeds from harvesting wheat and beetroot that they quickly fill up your inventory. In earlier releases I found that to be a nuisance. But since composters were introduced, I stick a composter between two hoppers and just throw my seeds into the top hopper. Now and again I return to collect stacks of bonemeal from the bottom hopper. I use tons of bonemeal to make flowers grow. My world in the Bedrock edition is ugly without all the flowers I am used to.
6. In Bedrock mobs spawn in tiny deep pools of water and don't seem to despawn. I have started dozens of worlds in Java that had pools of water near spawn, but I never had the problem of mobs stuck in the water bobbing up and down forever. In my Bedrock world there are Creepers and Drowned bobbing up and down in a tiny deep pool right next to my temporary cave-home. I haven't name-tagged them so I'm not sure if they are always the same ones, but they are always there. (I would have eventually killed them with a bow and lit up the area if I had continued playing).
The scarcity of seeds is the one thing that makes playing the Bedrock edition an absolute no-go for me. I enjoy manual farming. It takes too long to create a large farm, and I love composting seeds for bonemeal and turning my world into a flowering paradise. Bedrock doesn't give me that.
The only thing I like about Bedrock is the performance. And Redstone not having the bugs that Java Edition does I can forgive as you can't always replicate that between versions/coding languages.
Otherwise the swimming/creative flight is very strange. The Creative Flight not having a drift I understand to avoid nausea for people (even though I prefer to have the drift in Java), but the Swimming just feels slower to get out of the water and I struggle to adjust to it. Drowned also were very annoying to spawn I found compared to Java.
Bedrock is an interesting approach to the game in C# or C++ over Java and the How to Play/Behaviour Packs/Controller Support is very welcomed but for it being on all devices and other odd aspects it does feel strange to go to, not the worst experience of Minecraft (I only play Bedrock on Windows 10 though not Xbox One, outside of that Legacy on Vita) but yeah it is very different in some good and odd (not always easy to adjust to) ways.
I have never played on any version other than Java (and even then, only very old versions) but I wouldn't play on Bedrock because of the inability to downgrade and/or use mods (real mods, not "add-ons") and I doubt it ever had the underground generation in Java 1.6.4 and earlier (the Wiki says that caves were added in an update of world generation to the equivalent of 1.8). Bedrock doesn't even have any of the world customization options that Java has/had (it doesn't even have Large Biomes or Amplified, Superflat is just the "classic" preset. Not that the "Customized" world type in Java 1.8-1.12 was able to do the sort of customization that I'd want).
Another issue is mob spawning, with ridiculously low mob caps (only 8 mobs within a 9x9 chunk area?!); one of the things I enjoy about caving is fighting mobs, which I've enhanced in many ways (for example, I reduced the (de)spawn radius to 96 blocks, with the same cap of 70; this means that the mob density is 1.78 times higher than vanilla and 6.27 times higher than Bedrock). This is also a big issue I had with newer versions of Java, thanks to a bug introduced in 1.7.4 (or rather, it was always there but only affected singleplayer after they made the internal server's view distance track the render distance, without setting a minimum; vanilla 1.6.4 is always 10 regardless of whether you are on Tiny (2 chunks) or Far (16 chunks) - when I implemented this myself I made sure to limit the minimum view distance to 8, or 2 chunks less than the mob despawn radius, which also enables random block updates (within 7 chunks) to work consistently at any render distance).
Performance is also only an issue if you play on newer versions of Java, which are terribly unoptimized to say the least (the first computer I had was from 2006 yet was still above the recommended system requirements as of 1.6, and I had no issues with extreme modded world generation like "triple height" (ground depth) or "mega forest" biomes - 1.8+ brought it to its knees though and I doubt it could even run the latest versions. Also, the performance of the game has little to do with the language - one modder claims to have exceeded Bedrock in performance).
Of course, cross-play, which is probably the biggest advantage that Bedrock has, is irrelevant when you've never played multiplayer; likewise, I don't even use a texture pack (aside from a few customized textures, one of which is actually from an older version), much less shaders which would require buying new hardware and completely mess up lighting (the ones that I've seen in videos usually make it worse than Moody brightness; I've always played on Bright with proper monitor calibration and/or "true" total darkness, which exposes another major flaw with vanilla, and presumably Bedrock as well).
Otherwise, when I do play in vanilla (more or less) it is on the same world I've had since I got the game, and I have little reason to start another world which would be pretty much the exact same thing (all of my other worlds are modded with each mod having its own world).