Just get a book or a wooden shovel or any other tool you don't care about and pop on a level one enchantment to refresh the possible enchantments. Boom, different enchantments, hopefully no Silk Touch. You can't remove it permanently, or remove it from an item once it's enchanted, if that's what you're asking (though in the next update you can remove all enchants from an item via grindstone, I believe.)
Is there a way to remove the ability to get the Silk Touch enchantment from a enchantment table?
Not in vanilla, various mods that add new enchantments and/or change the weighting of various enchantmenrts exist, so lowering the weighting of silk touch to zero should be effective… but this would require modifying the vanilla game.
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WARNING: I have an extemely "grindy" playstyle; YMMV — if this doesn't seem fun to you, mine what you can from it & bin the rest.
There's only a way to get silk touch removed from the current roll of an enchantment table by enchanting something like a book to reroll the enchantment choices. But there is not a way to completely remove your chances of getting silk touch, or any other enchantment for that matter.