As far as I know, only by switching biome or moving up or down, the temperature gets lower as your height above sea level increases.
From the Wiki:
"Biomes have a temperature value that determines if it snows, rains, or does not have either. The required values are less than 0.15 for snow, 0.15 - 0.95 for rain, or at least 1 for neither. These values can be used to determine the heights that snow generates in different biomes. The temperature also drops 0.001(6) (1⁄600) per meter above the default sea level (Y=64), but does not change below sea level."
Well exactly, biome specific rules. As in, biome X snow starts at altitude Y. You can put in a lava lake and it will still snow there. You can build a house out of ice in a desert and it will be perfectly fine as long as you don't put in any light sources over 11.
Nether which supposedly is hot enough to evaporate water instantly, has zero effect on ice.