The picture seems to show mob heads & a sword on armor stands customized with NBT tags (based on the poses/positions).
My understanding is that breaking the armor stand on which such an item is displayed should drop the item, but the posibilities of customization may produce conditions where this does not work properly.
Another possibility is that the (presumably) visible armor stands you broke were not the stands on which the 'floating items' are displayed. (The custom NBT tags mentioned include the ability to create both invisible and indestructable armor stands, and multiple stands can be made to occupy the same space.)
Knowing what version you are playing (presumably in the java edition), what map etc., and any mods being used would be helpful as any of the above can affect options. [In a 'worst case' scenario, you may not be able to remove the floating items… ie if a mapmaker has included invisible & invulnerable stands with no means of countering the set properties (which can also include not being able to equip items from the stand).]
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WARNING: I have an extemely "grindy" playstyle; YMMV — if this doesn't seem fun to you, mine what you can from it & bin the rest.