No; they can even add their own, and due to how mods work on Minecraft there is no way Mojang could even try to disable them since anybody could easily work around any such patch due to the nature of how modding works. Note that this only applies to the Java version, which is also the only version that really has mods. The "Bedrock" version (Windows 10, PE, consoles) is different and even enabling cheats will disable achievements, but mods themselves not necessarily do this.
Also, mods on Minecraft are different from most games; the game itself doesn't officially support mods (beyond "resource packs" to change textures and sounds and "data packs" to add scripts which work similarly to "command blocks") and modders have to actually decompile and alter the game itself to mod it, and enabling/disabling mods means messing around with files placed into a folder (assuming that the mods use a "modloader", which is a special mod that loads other mods. Otherwise, mods are installed directly into the game, either manually or (more often) using an installer and the easiest way in any case to change what mods you use is to set up multiple modded instances/profiles with separate game directories and switch between them).
Note also that mods that add new blocks, items, and other things are often not safe to remove, if disabled for even a moment when opening a world anything that they added will be erased forever as the game discards unknown data, and disabling a world generation mod can cause broken world generation, where terrain suddenly changes and you explore new areas (in some cases this can cause more serious issues, while a mod like a minimap mod or Optifine is perfectly safe to disable). If you are altering a "modpack" (a collection of mods that is used like one mod) you should start a new world after making the changes to avoid any unexpected effects.