I recently bought MC (Java edition, 1.13). I'm using Windows 7 if that is important. Also, I only play on Hardcore mode. Therefore, I only have one world at a time; when I die, I delete it and create a new one. I also don't have any mods installed.
Now to the bugs.
1) Flickering sun
Each time after I delete a world and create a new one, the sun is blinking, i.e. every second the time changes to night and then to day again. Every second or so. It fixes itself only after I quit the program and run it again. I've seen this problem reported by many users, but I found no solution.
2) Born dead?
Sometimes after I create a new world, the game will greet me by announcing that I'm dead, so I have to delete it and create another one. I guess this has something to do with the game copying elements from my last world; one time in a newly created world I found a cave lit up with torches - something I always do but can never be found naturally, right?
Yes, the program definitely copies from previous game. I ran into a house I just built in previous world. I believe that this day/night crap has something to do with it as well. It seems that the game can't decide between the time from current game and the previous one.
I also thought it might be the name. I usually just go with the default or change it only slightly. I'll try changing it and see if it helps.
I've only ever seen #1 in 1.8, in that weird period when Forge was still migrating and working out its kinks. Because Forge was doing some major rewriting of itself (Forge 1.8 redid the rendering engine, a current employee of Mojang was a member of the Forge team responsible for it). I never did find out what the cause was, but I assume it had something to do with video settings.
#2 This can happen when you spawn in mid-air over a deep hole...like say a ravine or above one of those tube-column caves you sometimes see. You might also spawn in water deep enough for you to end up underwater, in which case you could theoretically die of drowning. Similarly, you might spawn next to a large cave opening that spawns hostile mobs close enough to you that they can come over to attack you before you are even shown the world.
#2 (part two) While I've only seen the following case in Modded (this happened when an Applied Energistics 2 skystone meteor landed just 10 blocks away from my spawn spot, both me and the bonus chest I spawned with got destroyed by the explosion that resulted), presumably you could be spawned in a spot that then becomes occupied by a structure (like, say, the walls of a village house). You would suffocate to death while the game was busy creating the world and trying to resolve all the stuff happening in it.
#3 there are two types of chunk errors, one of which a purely a rendering error (the world is still there, you just can't see it but instead see the x-ray effect through those blocks) and the other is a generation error (the world really is NOT there, and you end up falling into the void). These happen in cases of severe lag, which in turn generally indicates that you are running out of computer power. The seed or world name has no bearing on this.
#5 is sort of intentional, due to the way Mojang has coded the AI of mobs. Mobs are positioned horizontally at a centerpoint halfway between the mob model on both the x and z axes. For gameplay consistency (that is, so that it doesn't look weird seeing mobs stop/jump/walk along obstacles that they visually aren't up against), mobs are able to place their position extremely close to the edge of a block and that allows mobs that are longer in one direction to place enough of their model into a solid block to trigger suffocation. Mojang has NOT tried to fix this specific issue yet, but they did allegedly tweak a related one in 1.9 to make it less likely to occur (I don't think it helped much, though).