It has become much harder to find the default sounds for Minecraft to use in resource packs and ringtones. Luckily they are still there. It just takes a bit of work to get to them.
Click on the pictures to see better.
First you will need to go to %AppData% then .minecraft\assets\indexes
Open legacy with Notepad++ or just Notepad
use ctrl+f to find the name of your desired sound and find the hash for the sound
useing the first 2 charterers of the hash, find the correct folder under .minecraft\assets\objects
Then match the hash to a file name in that folder and copy it to your desktop
Open it with preferably notepad++ but notepad will work as well. Then save it as All File Types "." and at the end of the name type .ogg and save it.
You can then open it with a program such as audacity. If you just wanted to edit them for your resource pack then you are done. But if you wanted to steal them then you then can export(not save) it as a MP3. It might ask you to locate the MP3 .dill. If it does then click on the download button because you don't have it and follow the instructions.
Have a good day listing to your record 13 (broken record) as your ringtone