I'm not exactly sure if these are actual "experiments," but here are some ideas:
1. Note the trades each Villager gives and form hypotheses about how on earth they obtained them (seriously, how do priests get Eyes of Ender?)
2. Note their close relationship to witches. (Oh yeah, in the snapshots, lightning + Villager = Witch)
3. I'm with vent167 on the Iron Golem interaction. Also, they can apparently "be created" by the Villagers once the village is big enough.
4. Villager interaction with hostile mobs vs. Iron Golem interaction with hostile mobs
5. Something weird: the Villager children are born with their jobs already assigned. What the heck?
6. Spawn in the Generic Villager. The one with the green robe. (Attempting a trade is bad news, however.)
7. Whenever I play a world, I notice their extreme reverence to...whoever the altar in the churches are built for. One or two Villagers are CONSTANTLY on the altar at a time.
8. There's the obvious Zombie Virus.
9. Villagers will craft bread for each other, but nothing else. Also, the butcher's pens are nearly always empty (you had one job...).
10. Villagers have put crafting tables and furnaces in certain places, but apparently have no idea how to use them (not even for making bread).
11. Put a door in the doorway of the smithy. (Are the Villagers smart enough to recognize the inside of a house?)
This is a great thread...can't wait for next installment!!!!!
BTW this is not an experiment idea; more of a convenience. You can name baby villagers with a name tag normally, and an adult villager with a name tag if someone else is trading with them. This might make it easier to see who's who. Or it could go with the "ear-tagging," specifically of Walter...
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This seems to be a very compelling experiment. Years ago, I once conducted a slightly similar experiment. At the time, I had a crap computer so it took place in a flat world. I built a small lab/ home for myself at the edge of the village.
After a few days of observing them I realized that some of them were drifting further away from their homes to a point that they did not return for shelter at night, and half of them were dead. So I drew the remaining few back to the village and walled the town with fifteen-block high walls. Spiders were coming threw (duh!) so naturally I built a glass ceiling. Mobs were now spawning inside the village as well as outside, so I spawned in two iron golems.
The villagers were protected from everything but their own stupidity. The villagers AND the iron golems were now drowning in their own well now. So I fenced it off with a single gate. After that for the most part, the villagers were completely safe. Until one day... Three creepers, yes, THREE creepers blew the wall open. I didn't fix it though. I was interested to see what happened. One of the iron golems escaped and all went to heck. At night it was a mass occur of zombies, all of the villagers either died or were infected THEN died in the daylight. The experiment ended there, I hope your experiment deems more successful then mine