I have a "test" world. Found a sandy spot next to some dirt along a river. Planted 2 Sugar Canes in sand, 2 Sugar Canes in dirt, 2 Cactus in sand, and 1 Oak Sapling in dirt.
10 minutes: nothing had grown.
20 minutes: both sand Sugar Cane had grown +1. Nothing else had grown.
25 minutes: dirt Sugar Cane and Cactus had grown +1. Tree hadn't.
30 minutes: No change. Got bored and gave up.
Conclusion: (based on my single test) Sugar Cane grows fastest in sand (by water), but still takes about 20 minutes to grow +1. Everything grows slow in Win10, but grow times vary (I've seen trees pop up in just a couple of minutes). Nothing grows at a set rate. I can attest that it seems to take forever if you're standing around watching it! Sorry, I'm not gonna bother conducting the same experiment on the console to see how the two versions compare. My guess is "it depends"- sometimes things grow fast, sometimes they don't. How plants grow in your farm is a good example. You may plant them all at the same time, but they sure don't all mature at the same time!