**18**

# Make Your Post as Boring as Possible

### #401

Posted 14 April 2012 - 10:04 PM

### #402

Posted 15 April 2012 - 05:48 AM

You ever notice how awesome everything is? 'Cause it's pretty awesome.

### #404

Posted 15 April 2012 - 09:06 AM

### #406

Posted 15 April 2012 - 10:22 AM

**Mathematics**(from Greek μάθημα

*máthēma*, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of quantity, structure, space, and change.

^{[2]}Mathematicians seek outpatterns

^{[3]}

^{[4]}and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorousdeduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning often provides insight or predictions.

Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapesand motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first appeared inGreek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's

*Elements*. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that continues to the present day.

^{[5]}

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said, 'The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth'.

^{[6]}Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) referred to mathematics as "the Queen of the Sciences".

^{[7]}Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880) called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions".

^{[8]}David Hilbert said of mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise."

^{[9]}Albert Einstein (1879–1955) stated that "as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality".

^{[10]}

Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.

^{[11]}

^{Etymology}^{The word "mathematics" comes from the Greek μάθημα (máthēma), which means in ancient Greek what one learns, what one gets to know, hence also study and science, and in modern Greek just lesson.}

^{The word máthēma comes from μανθάνω (manthano) in ancient Greek and from μαθαίνω (mathaino) in modern Greek, both of which mean to learn.}

^{The word "mathematics" in Greek came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study", even in Classical times.[12] Its adjective is μαθηματικός (mathēmatikós), meaning related to learning or studious, which likewise further came to mean mathematical. In particular, μαθηματικὴ τέχνη (mathēmatikḗ tékhnē), Latin: ars mathematica, meant the mathematical art. In Latin, and in English until around 1700, the term "mathematics" more commonly meant "astrology" (or sometimes "astronomy") rather than "mathematics"; the meaning gradually changed to its present one from about 1500 to 1800. This has resulted in several mistranslations: a particularly notorious one is Saint Augustine's warning that Christians should beware of "mathematici" meaning astrologers, which is sometimes mistranslated as a condemnation of mathematicians.}

^{The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form les mathématiques (and the less commonly used singular derivative la mathématique), goes back to the Latin neuter plural mathematica(Cicero), based on the Greek plural τα μαθηματικά (ta mathēmatiká), used by Aristotle (384-322BC), and meaning roughly "all things mathematical"; although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun mathematics anew, after the pattern of physics and metaphysics, which were inherited from the Greek.[13] In English, the noun mathematics takes singular verb forms. It is often shortened to maths or, in English-speaking North America, math.}

^{The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series ofabstractions, or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction, which is shared by many animals,[14] was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.}

^{In addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, seasons, years.[15]Elementary arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) naturally followed.}

^{Since numeracy pre-dated writing, further steps were needed for recording numbers such as tallies or the knotted strings called quipu used by the Inca to store numerical data.[citation needed] Numeral systems have been many and diverse, with the first known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.[citation needed]}

^{}

^{}^{Mayan numerals}

^{The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time. More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.[16] The systematic study of mathematics in its own right began with the Ancient Greeks between 600 and 300 BC.[17]}

^{Mathematics has since been greatly extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. According to Mikhail B. Sevryuk, in the January 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, "The number of papers and books included in the Mathematical Reviewsdatabase since 1940 (the first year of operation of MR) is now more than 1.9 million, and more than 75 thousand items are added to the database each year. The overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and theirproofs."[18]}

-- H A P P Y N E W Y E A R ! --

### #407

Posted 15 April 2012 - 10:40 AM

CreepsInMyMind, on 15 April 2012 - 10:22 AM, said:

**Mathematics**(from Greek μάθημα

*máthēma*, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of quantity, structure, space, and change.

^{[2]}Mathematicians seek outpatterns

^{[3]}

^{[4]}and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorousdeduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning often provides insight or predictions.

Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapesand motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first appeared inGreek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's

*Elements*. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that continues to the present day.

^{[5]}

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said, 'The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth'.

^{[6]}Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) referred to mathematics as "the Queen of the Sciences".

^{[7]}Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880) called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions".

^{[8]}David Hilbert said of mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise."

^{[9]}Albert Einstein (1879–1955) stated that "as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality".

^{[10]}

Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.

^{[11]}

^{Etymology}^{The word "mathematics" comes from the Greek μάθημα (máthēma), which means in ancient Greek what one learns, what one gets to know, hence also study and science, and in modern Greek just lesson.}

^{The word máthēma comes from μανθάνω (manthano) in ancient Greek and from μαθαίνω (mathaino) in modern Greek, both of which mean to learn.}

^{The word "mathematics" in Greek came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study", even in Classical times.[12] Its adjective is μαθηματικός (mathēmatikós), meaning related to learning or studious, which likewise further came to mean mathematical. In particular, μαθηματικὴ τέχνη (mathēmatikḗ tékhnē), Latin: ars mathematica, meant the mathematical art. In Latin, and in English until around 1700, the term "mathematics" more commonly meant "astrology" (or sometimes "astronomy") rather than "mathematics"; the meaning gradually changed to its present one from about 1500 to 1800. This has resulted in several mistranslations: a particularly notorious one is Saint Augustine's warning that Christians should beware of "mathematici" meaning astrologers, which is sometimes mistranslated as a condemnation of mathematicians.}

^{The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form les mathématiques (and the less commonly used singular derivative la mathématique), goes back to the Latin neuter plural mathematica(Cicero), based on the Greek plural τα μαθηματικά (ta mathēmatiká), used by Aristotle (384-322BC), and meaning roughly "all things mathematical"; although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun mathematics anew, after the pattern of physics and metaphysics, which were inherited from the Greek.[13] In English, the noun mathematics takes singular verb forms. It is often shortened to maths or, in English-speaking North America, math.}

^{The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series ofabstractions, or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction, which is shared by many animals,[14] was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.}

^{In addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, seasons, years.[15]Elementary arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) naturally followed.}

^{Since numeracy pre-dated writing, further steps were needed for recording numbers such as tallies or the knotted strings called quipu used by the Inca to store numerical data.[citation needed] Numeral systems have been many and diverse, with the first known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.[citation needed]}

^{}

^{}^{Mayan numerals}

^{The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time. More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.[16] The systematic study of mathematics in its own right began with the Ancient Greeks between 600 and 300 BC.[17]}

^{Mathematics has since been greatly extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. According to Mikhail B. Sevryuk, in the January 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, "The number of papers and books included in the Mathematical Reviewsdatabase since 1940 (the first year of operation of MR) is now more than 1.9 million, and more than 75 thousand items are added to the database each year. The overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and theirproofs."[18]}

### #408

Posted 15 April 2012 - 11:00 AM

**Boredom**has been defined by C. D. Fisher in terms of its central psychological processes: “an unpleasant, transient affectivestate in which the individual feels a pervasive lack of interest in and difficulty concentrating on the current activity.”

^{[4]}M. R. Leary and others describe boredom as “an affective experience associated with cognitive attentional processes.”

^{[5]}In positive psychology, boredom is described as a response to a moderate challenge for which the subject has more than enough skill.

^{[3]}

There are three types of boredom, all of which involve problems of engagement of attention. These include times when we are prevented from engaging in some wanted activity, when we are forced to engage in some unwanted activity, or when we are simply unable, for no apparent reason, to maintain engagement in any activity or spectacle.

^{[6]}Boredom proneness is a tendency to experience boredom of all types. This is typically assessed by the Boredom Proneness Scale.

^{[7]}Consistent with the definition provided above, recent research has found that boredom proneness is clearly and consistently associated with failures of attention.

^{[8]}Boredom and boredom proneness are both theoretically and empirically linked to depression and depressive symptoms.

^{[9]}

^{[10]}

^{[11]}Nonetheless, boredom proneness has been found to be as strongly correlated with attentional lapses as with depression.

^{[9]}Although boredom is often viewed as a trivial and mild irritant, proneness to boredom has been linked to a very diverse range of possible psychological, physical, educational, and social problems.

### #409

Posted 15 April 2012 - 11:01 AM

**Memetics**is a controversial theory of mental content based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution, originating from the popularization of Richard Dawkins' 1976 book

*The Selfish Gene.*

^{[1]}It purports to be an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer.

The meme, analogous to a gene, was conceived as a "unit of culture" (an idea, belief, pattern of behaviour, etc.) which is "hosted" in one or more individual minds, and which can reproduce itself, thereby jumping from mind to mind. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief is seen—when adopting the intentional stance

^{[1]}

^{[2]}—as an idea-replicator reproducing itself in a new host. As with genetics, particularly under a Dawkinsian interpretation, a meme's success may be due to its contribution to the effectiveness of its host.

Memetics is also notable for sidestepping the traditional concern with the

*truth*of ideas and beliefs. Instead, it is interested in their success.

The Usenet newsgroup alt.memetics started in 1993 with peak posting years in the mid to late 1990s.

^{[3]}The

*Journal of Memetics*was published electronically from 1997 to 2005.

^{[4]}

** Contents**

[hide]

- 1 History of the term

- 2 Criticism
- 3 New developments
- 4 Terminology
- 5 See also
- 6 References

- 7 External links

**[edit]History of the term**

In his book

*The Selfish Gene*(1976), the evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins used the term

*meme*to describe a unit of human cultural transmission analogous to the gene, arguing that replication also happens in culture, albeit in a different sense. In his book, Dawkins contended that the meme is a unit of information residing in the brain and is the mutating replicator in human cultural evolution. It is a pattern that can influence its surroundings – that is, it has causal agency – and can propagate. This created great debate among sociologists, biologists, and scientists of other disciplines, because Dawkins himself did not provide a sufficient explanation of how the replication of units of information in the brain controls human behaviour and ultimately culture, since the principal topic of the book was genetics. Dawkins apparently did not intend to present a comprehensive theory of

*memetics*in

*The Selfish Gene*, but rather coined the term

*meme*in a speculative spirit. Accordingly, the term "unit of information" came to be defined in different ways by many scientists.

The modern memetics movement dates from the mid 1980s. A January 1983 Metamagical Themas column

^{[5]}by Douglas Hofstadter, in

*Scientific American*, was influential as was his 1985 book of the same name. "Memeticist" was coined as analogous to "geneticist" originally in

*The Selfish Gene.*Later Arel Lucas suggested that the discipline that studies memes and their connections to human and other carriers of them be known as memetics by analogy with 'genetics.'"

^{[6]}Dawkins'

*The Selfish Gene*has been a factor in drawing in people of disparate intellectual backgrounds. Another stimulus was the publication in 1991 of

*Consciousness Explained*by Tufts University philosopher Daniel Dennett, which incorporated the meme concept into a theory of the mind. In his 1991

^{[7]}essay "Viruses of the Mind", Richard Dawkins used memetics to explain the phenomenon of religious belief and the various characteristics of organised religions. By then, memetics had also become a theme appearing in fiction (e.g. Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash).

However, the foundation of memetics in full modern incarnation originates in the publication in 1996 of two books by authors outside the academic mainstream:

*Virus of the Mind: The New Science of the Meme*by former Microsoft executive turned motivational speaker and professional poker player, Richard Brodie, and

*Thought Contagion: How Belief Spreads Through Society*by Aaron Lynch, a mathematician and philosopher who worked for many years as an engineer at Fermilab. Lynch claimed to have conceived his theory totally independently of any contact with academics in the cultural evolutionary sphere, and apparently was not even aware of Dawkins'

*The Selfish Gene*until his book was very close to publication.

Around the same time as the publication of the books by Lynch and Brodie the e-journal Journal of Memetics –

*Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission*appeared on the web. It was first hosted by the Centre for Policy Modelling at Manchester Metropolitan University but later taken over by Francis Heylighen of the CLEA research institute at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The e-journal soon became the central point for publication and debate within the nascent memeticist community. (There had been a short-lived paper memetics publication starting in 1990, the

*Journal of Ideas*edited by Elan Moritz.

^{[8]}) In 1999, Susan Blackmore, a psychologist at the University of the West of England, published

*The Meme Machine*, which more fully worked out the ideas of Dennett, Lynch, and Brodie and attempted to compare and contrast them with various approaches from the cultural evolutionary mainstream, as well as providing novel, and controversial, memetic-based theories for the evolution of language and the human sense of individual selfhood.

The term is a transliteration

^{[citation needed]}of the Ancient Greek μιμητής (

*mimētḗs*), meaning "imitator, pretender", and was used in 1904, by the German evolutionary biologist Richard Semon, best known for his development of the engram theory of memory, in his work

*Die mnemischen Empfindungen in ihren Beziehungen zu den Originalempfindungen*, translated into English in 1921 as

*The Mneme*. Until Daniel Schacter published

*Forgotten Ideas, Neglected Pioneers: Richard Semon and the Story of Memory*in 2000, Semon's work had little influence, though it was quoted extensively in Erwin Schrödinger's prescient 1956 Tarner Lecture "Mind and Matter".

**[edit]Internalists and externalists**

The memetics movement split almost immediately into two. The first group were those who wanted to stick to Dawkins' definition of a meme as "a unit of cultural transmission". Gibran Burchett, another memeticist responsible for helping to research and co-coin the term memetic engineering, along with Leveious Rolando and Larry Lottman, has stated that a meme can be defined, more precisely, as "a unit of cultural information that can be copied, located in the brain". This thinking is more in line with Dawkins' second definition of the meme in his book

*The Extended Phenotype*. The second group wants to redefine memes as observable cultural artifacts and behaviors. However, in contrast to those two positions, Blackmore does not reject either concept of external or internal memes.

^{[9]}

These two schools became known as the "internalists" and the "externalists." Prominent internalists included both Lynch and Brodie; the most vocal externalists included Derek Gatherer, a geneticist fromLiverpool John Moores University, and William Benzon, a writer on cultural evolution and music. The main rationale for externalism was that internal brain entities are not observable, and memetics cannot advance as a science, especially a quantitative science, unless it moves its emphasis onto the directly quantifiable aspects of culture. Internalists countered with various arguments: that brain states will eventually be directly observable with advanced technology, that most cultural anthropologists agree that culture is about beliefs and not artifacts, or that artifacts cannot be replicators in the same sense as mental entities (or DNA) are replicators. The debate became so heated that a 1998 Symposium on Memetics, organised as part of the 15th International Conference on Cybernetics, passed a motion calling for an end to definitional debates. McNamara demonstrated in 2011 that functional connectivity profiling using neuroimaging tools enables the observation of the processing of internal memes (i-memes) in response to external e-memes.

^{[10]}

An advanced statement of the internalist school came in 2002 with the publication of

*The Electric Meme*, by Robert Aunger, an anthropologist from the University of Cambridge. Aunger also organised a conference in Cambridge in 1999, at which prominent sociologists and anthropologists were able to give their assessment of the progress made in memetics to that date. This resulted in the publication of

*Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science*, edited by Aunger and with a foreword by Dennett, in 2000.

**[edit]Maturity**

In 2005, the

*Journal of Memetics – Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission*ceased publication and published a set of articles on the future of memetics. The website states that although "there was to be a relaunch...after several years nothing has happened".

^{[11]}Susan Blackmore has left the University of the West of England to become a freelance science writer and now concentrates more on the field of consciousness and cognitive science. Derek Gatherer moved to work as a computer programmer in the pharmaceutical industry, although he still occasionally publishes on memetics-related matters.Richard Brodie is now climbing the world professional poker rankings. Aaron Lynch disowned the memetics community and the words "meme" and "memetics" (without disowning the ideas in his book), adopting the self-description "thought contagionist". Lynch lost his previous funding from a private sponsor and after his book royalties declined, he was unable to support himself as a private memetics/thought-contagion consultant.

^{[citation needed]}He died in 2005.

Susan Blackmore (2002) re-stated the definition of meme as: whatever is copied from one person to another person, whether habits, skills, songs, stories, or any other kind of information. Further she said that memes, like genes, are replicators in the sense as defined by Dawkins.

^{[12]}That is, they are information that is copied. Memes are copied by imitation, teaching and other methods. The copies are not perfect: memes are copied with variation; moreover, they compete for space in our memories and for the chance to be copied again. Only some of the variants can survive. The combination of these three elements (copies; variation; competition for survival) forms precisely the condition for Darwinian evolution, and so memes (and hence human cultures) evolve. Large groups of memes that are copied and passed on together are called co-adapted meme complexes, or

*memeplexes*. In her definition, the way that a meme replicates is through imitation. This requires brain capacity to generally imitate a model or selectively imitate the model. Since the process of social learning varies from one person to another, the imitation process cannot be said to be completely imitated. The sameness of an idea may be expressed with different memes supporting it. This is to say that the mutation rate in memetic evolution is extremely high, and mutations are even possible within each and every interaction of the imitation process. It becomes very interesting when we see that a social system composed of a complex network of microinteractions exists, but at the macro level an order emerges to create culture.

**[edit]Criticism**

See also: Criticism of meme theory

See also: Criticism of meme theory

This evolutionary model of cultural information transfer is based on the concept that units of information, or "memes", have an independent existence, are self-replicating, and are subject to selective evolution through environmental forces.

^{[13]}Starting from a proposition put forward in the writings of Richard Dawkins, it has since turned into a new area of study, one that looks at the self-replicating units of culture. It has been proposed that just as memes are analogous to genes, memetics is analogous to genetics. Memetics has been deemed a pseudoscience on several fronts.

^{[13]}Its proponents' assertions have been labeled "untested, unsupported or incorrect."

^{[13]}

Luis Benitez-Bribiesca, a critic of memetics, calls it "a pseudoscientific dogma" and "a dangerous idea that poses a threat to the serious study of consciousness and cultural evolution" among other things. As factual criticism, he refers to the lack of a

*code script*for memes, as the DNA is for genes, and to the fact that the meme mutation mechanism (i.e., an idea going from one brain to another) is too unstable (low replication accuracy and high mutation rate), which would render the evolutionary process chaotic.

^{[14]}

Another criticism comes from semiotics, (e.g., Deacon,

^{[15]}Kull

^{[16]}) stating that the concept of meme is a primitivized concept of Sign. Meme is thus described in memetics as a sign without its triadic nature. In other words, meme is a degenerate sign, which includes only its ability of being copied. Accordingly, in the broadest sense, the objects of copying are memes, whereas the objects of translation and interpretation are signs.

Mary Midgley criticises memetics for at least two reasons: One, culture is not best understood by examining its smallest parts, as culture is pattern-like, comparable to an ocean current. Many more factors, historical and others, should be taken into account than only whatever particle culture is built from. Two, if memes are not thoughts (and thus not cognitive phenomena), as Daniel C. Dennett insists in "Darwin's Dangerous Idea", then their ontological status is open to question, and memeticists (who are also reductionists) may be challenged whether memes even exist. Questions can extend to whether the idea of "meme" is itself a meme, or is a true concept.

**[edit]New developments**

Dawkins responds in

*A Devil's Chaplain*that there are actually two different types of memetic processes (controversial and informative). The first is a type of cultural idea, action, or expression, which does have high variance; for instance, a student of his who had inherited some of the mannerisms of Wittgenstein. However, he also describes a self-correcting meme, highly resistant to mutation. As an example of this, he gives origami patterns in elementary schools – except in rare cases, the meme is either passed on in the exact sequence of instructions, or (in the case of a forgetful child) terminates. This type of meme tends not to evolve, and to experience profound mutations in the rare event that it does. Some memeticists

^{[who?]}, however, see this as more of a continuum of meme strength, rather than two types of memes.

Another definition, given by Hokky Situngkir, tried to offer a more rigorous formalism for the meme,

*memeplexes*, and the

*deme*, seeing the meme as a cultural unit in a cultural complex system. It is based on the Darwinian genetic algorithm with some modifications to account for the different patterns of evolution seen in genes and memes. In the method of memetics as the way to see culture as a complex adaptive system, he describes a way to see memetics as an alternative methodology of cultural evolution. However, there are as many possible definitions that are credited to the word "meme". For example, in the sense of computer simulation the term

*memetic algorithm*is used to define a particular computational viewpoint.

The possibility of quantitative analysis of memes using neuroimaging tools and the suggestion that such studies have already been done was given by McNamara (2011).

^{[10]}This author proposes hyperscanning (concurrent scanning of two communicating individuals in two separate MRI machines) as a key tool in the future for investigating memetics.

Memetics can be simply understood as a method for scientific analysis of cultural evolution. However, proponents of memetics as described in the Journal of Memetics –

*Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission*believe that 'memetics' has the potential to be an important and promising analysis of culture using the framework of evolutionary concepts. Keith Henson who wrote

*Memetics and the Modular-Mind*(Analog Aug. 1987)

^{[17]}makes the case that memetics needs to incorporate evolutionary psychology to understand the psychological traits of a meme's host.

^{[18]}This is especially true of time-varying, meme-amplification host-traits, such as those leading to wars.

^{[19]}

^{[20]}

Recently, Christopher diCarlo has developed the idea of 'memetic equilibrium' to describe a cultural compatible state with biological equilibrium. In "Problem Solving and Neurotransmission in the Upper Paleolithic" (in press), diCarlo argues that as human consciousness evolved and developed, so too did our ancestors' capacity to consider and attempt to solve environmental problems in more conceptually sophisticated ways. Understood in this way, problem solving amongst a particular group, when considered satisfactory, often produces a feeling of environmental control, stability, in short—memetic equilibrium. But the pay-off is not merely practical, providing purely functional utility—it is biochemical and it comes in the form of neurotransmitters. The relationship between a gradually emerging conscious awareness and sophisticated languages in which to formulate representations combined with the desire to maintain biological equilibrium, generated the necessity for memetic equilibrium to fill in conceptual gaps in terms of understanding three very important aspects in the Upper Paleolithic: causality, morality, and mortality. The desire to explain phenomena in relation to maintaining survival and reproductive stasis, generated a normative stance in the minds of our ancestors—Survival/Reproductive Value (or S-R Value).

The application of memetics to a difficult complex social system problem, environmental sustainability, has recently been attempted at thwink.org. Using meme types and memetic infection in several stock and flow simulation models, Jack Harich has demonstrated several interesting phenomena that are best, and perhaps only, explained by memes. One model, The Dueling Loops of the Political Powerplace, argues that the fundamental reason corruption is the norm in politics is due to an inherent structural advantage of one feedback loop pitted against another. Another model, The Memetic Evolution of Solutions to Difficult Problems, uses memes, the evolutionary algorithm, and the scientific method to show how complex solutions evolve over time and how that process can be improved. The insights gained from these models are being used to engineer memetic solution elements to the sustainability problem.

Francis Heylighen of the Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies has postulated what he calls "memetic selection criteria". These criteria opened the way to a specialized field of

*applied memetics*to find out if these selection criteria could stand the test of quantitative analyses

^{[disambiguation needed ]}. In 2003 Klaas Chielens carried out these tests in a Masters thesis project on the testability of the selection criteria.

In

*Selfish Sounds and Linguistic Evolution*,

^{[21]}Austrian linguist Nikolaus Ritt has attempted to operationalise memetic concepts and use them for the explanation of long term sound changes and change conspiracies in early English. It is argued that a generalised Darwinian framework for handling cultural change can provide explanations where established, speaker centred approaches fail to do so. The book makes comparatively concrete suggestions about the possible material structure of memes, and provides two empirically rich case studies.

Australian academic S.J. Whitty has argued that project management is a memeplex with the language and stories of its practitioners at its core.

^{[22]}This radical, some say heretical

^{[citation needed]}approach requires project managers to consider that most of what they call a project and what it is to manage one is an illusion; a human construct about a collection of feelings, expectations, and sensations, cleverly conjured up, fashioned, and conveniently labeled by the human brain. It also requires project managers to consider that the reasons for using project management are not consciously driven to maximize profit. Project managers are required to consider project management as naturally occurring, self-serving, evolving and designing organizations for its own purpose.

Swedish political scientist Mikael Sandberg argues against "Lamarckian" interpretations of institutional and technological evolution and studies creative innovation of information technologies in governmental and private organizations in Sweden in the 1990s from a memetic perspective.

^{[23]}Comparing the effects of active ("Lamarckian") IT strategy versus user–producer interactivity (Darwinian co-evolution), evidence from Swedish organizations shows that co-evolutionary interactivity is almost four times as strong a factor behind IT creativity as the "Lamarckian" IT strategy.

-- H A P P Y N E W Y E A R ! --

### #411

Posted 15 April 2012 - 11:51 AM

### #412

Posted 15 April 2012 - 01:02 PM

*How Boredom*

*Works ... for*

*Kids*There are three reasons children use the word “bored” to describe their experience. First, there is some similarity between and what adults call boredom. Both are painful, a response to external stimulus, and lead to disengagement.

Second, and perhaps more important, adults initially respond more positively to the word bored than to other descriptors — such as angry, mad, or “I hate it.” In fact, every parent wants to think of their child as smarter than most. When problems begin to develop, but are still not well defined, it is more appealing for parents to think of their child as really bright but bored with the plebeian activities offered him by his unenlightened (or worse) teacher.

So, a version of “group-think” sets in. The child who talks about boredom reinforces the idea to the parent. Parental language about boredom likewise reinforces the child’s use of the word bored. They have a shared and mutually reinforced conceptual reality — the child’s problem is best thought of as boredom.

Third, the idea of being bored with something gives one a sense of superiority over it. For example, being bored with school gives the child a sense of ego support over the very thing that has been so damaging to his ego. This is a clever reframing of negative stimuli into a positive one.

Again, the child’s approach is a sophisticated, short-term adaptation, not a disability. This strategy also provides further rationale for the child to distance himself from school and schoolwork. Such children often develop a life quite separate from school, be it in joining the street culture or simply dropping out.

Sometimes they are quite articulate in differentiating themselves from school. Their message is “Why do I need school?,” “That stuff doesn’t make a difference,” “I’ll just get a job.” Until and unless the child’s pattern is extinguished, it is infinitely extendible into other parts of his life and on into adulthood.

### #414

Posted 15 April 2012 - 01:33 PM

**HELLO**

*HELLOHELLO*~~HELLO~~### #415

Posted 15 April 2012 - 02:16 PM

**The Complete Damage Formula for Diamond & Pearl**

By X-Act and Peterko, updated by Kaphotics.

- Introduction
- The Damage Formula and How to Use It
- The Base Power and Its Modifiers

- The Attack and Special Attack stats and their Modifiers

- The Defense and Special Defense stats and their Modifiers
- The First Modifier to the Damage Formula
- The Second Modifier to the Damage Formula
- The Third Modifier to the Damage Formula
- Exceptional Cases

**Introduction**

The Damage Formula is one of the two most important calculations in a Pokemon game (the other one being the Stats Formula). Here, we provide the damage formula for Diamond, Pearl, and Platinum (DPP). Note that this formula is not the same as that for the games preceding DPP, so don't use it to calculate damage for other games.

I need to immediately thank Peterko for all the testing data he has provided for me. This guide wouldn't have seen the light of day without all his efforts. He literally triggered the damage formula thousands of times (not an exaggeration) during the game so that I could come up with such a detailed description of it. I cannot thank him enough for his efforts. Thank you Peterko... you are one of the best testers I've ever seen!

**Section 1: The Damage Formula and How to Use It**

Here is the damage formula for DPP:

Damage Formula = (((((((Level × 2 ÷ 5) + 2) × BasePower × [Sp]Atk ÷ 50) ÷ [Sp]Def) × Mod1) + 2) ×

CH × Mod2 × R ÷ 100) × STAB × Type1 × Type2 × Mod3)

where: Level The user's current level. BasePower The move's Base Power (after performing all necessary modifiers to it... see Section 2). [Sp]Atk The user's Attack or Special Attack stat (after performing all necessary modifiers to it... see Section 3). If the move used is physical, the Attack stat is utilized; otherwise, the Special Attack stat is used. [Sp]Def The foe's Defense or Special Defense stat (after performing all necessary modifiers to it... see Section 4). If the move used is physical, the Defense stat is utilized; otherwise, the Special Defense stat is used. Mod1 The first modifier to the damage formula. See Section 5 for more details. CH 3 if the move is a critical hit and the user has the Sniper ability, 2 if the move is a critical hit and the user's ability is not Sniper, and 1 otherwise. Mod2 The second modifier to the damage formula. See Section 6 for more details. R (100 - Rand), where Rand is a random whole number between 0 and 15 inclusive with uniform probability. This produces a whole number between 85 and 100 inclusive, with uniform probability. STAB 2 if the move is of the same type as that of the user and the user has the Adaptability ability, 1.5 if the move is of the same type as that of the user and the user's ability is not Adaptability, and 1 otherwise. This is known as Same Type Attack Bonus (hence STAB). Type1 2 if the move is super effective against the first type of the foe, 0.5 if the move is not very effective against the first type of the foe, 0 if the move type does not affect the first type of the foe, and 1 otherwise. Type2 2 if the move is super effective against the second type of the foe, 0.5 if the move is not very effective against the second type of the foe, 0 if the move type does not affect the type of the foe, and 1 otherwise (or if the foe has only one type). Mod3 The third modifier to the damage formula. See Section 7 for more details.

It should be immediately mentioned that after successfully performing an operator (an operator being +, -, × or ÷), you need to "round down" the number to the nearest whole number before performing the next one. In simple terms, this means to remove all the numbers to the right of the decimal point every time the answer is a decimal before proceeding with the next arithmetic operation.

If the damage formula's damage is 0 and the foe is not immune to the move used, the damage dealt will be 1 instead. This will happen if, say, a Level 2 Bidoof uses Tackle against a Level 100 Aggron. To paraphrase, unless the move does not affect the foe, the minimum amount of damage done is 1.

The way the formula is written above is such that you can actually ignore all the brackets and proceed from left to right (ignoring the BODMAS rules, so to speak) and still come up with the correct answer.

Let's provide an example here. For the sake of simplicity, we shall assume that Mod1, Mod2, and Mod3 are all 1 in this example.

Say we want to calculate the minimum and maximum damage that a Level 47 Staraptor with 140 Attack stat will deal with the move Aerial Ace against a Roserade with 77 Defense stat.

- We start with the Level of Staraptor, 47, and multiply it by 2, getting 94.
- Next, we divide 94 by 5, getting 18.8, which is rounded down to 18.
- Next, we add 2 to 18, getting 20.
- Next, we multiply 20 by 60 (the move power of Aerial Ace), getting 1200.
- Next, we multiply 1200 by 140 (the Attack stat of Staraptor), getting 168000.
- Next, we divide 168000 by 50, getting 3360.
- Next, we divide 3360 by 77 (the Defense stat of Roserade), getting 43.636363..., which is rounded down to 43.
- Next, we multiply 43 by 1 (Mod1 is 1 here), getting 43.***
- Next, we add 2 to 43, getting 45.
- Next, we multiply 45 by 1 (assuming that we didn't get a critical hit here), getting 45.***
- Next, we multiply 45 by 1 (Mod2 is 1 here), getting 45.***
- Next, we multiply 45 by 85 (the minimum number that the random number can be), getting 3825.
- Next, we divide 3825 by 100, getting 38.25, which is rounded down to 38.
- Next, we multiply 38 by 1.5 (since Aerial Ace is Flying-type, like one of Staraptor's types is), getting 57.
- Next, we multiply 57 by 2 (since Aerial Ace is Flying-type, which is super effective against Roserade's first type, Grass), getting 114.
- Next, we multiply 114 by 1 (since Aerial Ace is Flying-type, which is neutral against Roserade's second type, Poison), getting 114.***
- Finally, we multiply 114 by 1 (Mod3 is 1 here), getting 114.***

For the maximum damage, we do exactly the same steps, except that we multiply by 100 instead of by 85 in Step 12. We get 134 as the maximum damage if we do that. Try it out. (If you do not get 134, make sure that you have actually rounded down your answer at EVERY step in the calculation.)

Note: The steps marked *** can be omitted, since multiplying by 1 does not change the answer.

**Section 2: The Base Power and its Modifiers**

The Base Power of the move might be considered to be simple, but in fact it can change by many things during the battle that can affect it.

So many, in fact, that it can be summarised by the following formula:

BasePower = HH × BP × IT × CHG × MS × WS × UA × FA

where HH 1.5 if the move has been boosted by the move Helping Hand by the partner, and 1 otherwise. BP The Base Power of the move. This is usually found easily, like 80 for Energy Ball, 60 for Aerial Ace, etc. Some moves have a variable BP, a list of which is given in Section 2A. IT The item multiplier. The list of items that affect Base Power, together with their effects, is given in Section 2B. CHG 2 if the Pokemon's last move was Charge and this move's type is Electric and 1 otherwise. MS 0.5 if one of the Pokemon in play used the move Mud Sport and this move's type is Electric, and 1 otherwise. WS 0.5 if one of the Pokemon in play used the move Water Sport and this move's type is Fire, and 1 otherwise. UA The user ability multiplier. A list of user abilities that affect Base Power, together with their effects, is given in Section 2C. FA The foe ability multiplier. A list of foe abilities that affect Base Power, together with their effects, is given in Section 2D.

The Base Power is calculated from left to right, and is rounded down before the next multiplication is performed. The order of the multiplications is as written in the formula above... changing the order might result in the incorrect Base Power.

**Section 2A - Moves having a Variable Base Power**

Here is a list of moves having variable Base Power. This Base Power is equal to BP in the Base Power formula. Move name Base Power Assurance 100 if the foe was hurt that turn, 50 otherwise. Avalanche 120 if the targeted Pokemon did damage to the user, 60 otherwise. Brine 130 if the targeted Pokemon's current HP is less than or equal to half of its maximum HP, rounded down, 65 otherwise. Crush Grip*** 1 + (120 × Foe's Current HP ÷ Foe's Max HP), rounded down. Eruption*** 150 × User's Current HP ÷ User's Max HP, rounded down. Facade 140 if the user is paralyzed, poisoned, or burned, 70 otherwise. Flail 200 if CP is between 0 and 1, 150 if CP is between 2 and 5, 100 if CP is between 6 and 12, 80 if CP is between 13 and 21, 40 if CP is between 22 and 42, and 20 if CP is between 43 and 64, where CP = User's Current HP × 64 ÷ User's Total HP, rounded down. Fling*** Check the move's page for more details. Frustration 102 - (User's Happiness × 2 ÷ 5), rounded down. If BP is 0, it becomes 1. Fury Cutter 10 if Fury Cutter was not already used or it missed when it was last used, otherwise, BP is double the BP of the last used Fury Cutter. If BP is greater than 160, it becomes 160. Grass Knot 20 if W is between 0 and 10, 40 if W is between 10.1 and 25, 60 if W is between 25.1 and 50, 80 if W is between 50.1 and 100, 100 if W is between 100.1 and 200, and 120 otherwise, where W is the weight of the foe in kilograms. Gyro Ball 1 + (25 × Foe's Speed ÷ User's Speed), rounded down. If BP is greater than 150, it becomes 150. Ice Ball If Defense Curl was used by the user in any of the previous turns, then 60 for the first turn that Ice Ball is used, followed by 120, 240, 480 and 960 for the second, third, fourth and fifth turns respectively. If Defense Curl was not used by the user in any of the previous turns, then 30 for the first turn that Ice Ball is used, then 60, 120, 240, and 480 for the second, third, fourth and fifth turns respectively. If Ice Ball fails, BP restarts from 60 or 30 in its next usage. Hidden Power Check the move's page for more details. Low Kick 20 if W is between 0 and 10, 40 if W is between 10.1 and 25, 60 if W is between 25.1 and 50, 80 if W is between 50.1 and 100, 100 if W is between 100.1 and 200, and 120 otherwise, where W is the weight of the foe in kilograms. Magnitude 10 if R is between 0 and 4 (Magnitude 4), 30 if R is between 5 and 14 (Magnitude 5), 50 if R is between 15 and 34 (Magnitude 6), 70 if R is between 35 and 64 (Magnitude 7), 90 if R is between 65 and 84 (Magnitude 8), 110 if R is between 85 and 94 (Magnitude 9), and 150 if R is between 95 and 99 (Magnitude 10), where R is a random whole number between 0 and 99 with uniform probability. Natural Gift Check the move's page for more details Nature Power Becomes Earthquake if the location is on a road or in the desert, Tri Attack if the location is inside a building (this is the default choice in battles), Seed Bomb if the location is on grass or tall grass, Rock Slide if the location is in a cave or on a mountain, Blizzard if the location is on snow, and Hydro Pump if the location is on a pond or in the sea. Payback 100 if the targeted Pokemon moves before the user, 50 otherwise. Present*** 40 if R is between 0 and 102, 80 if R is between 103 and 179, 120 if R is between 179 and 204, and 0 and the foe is healed by 80 HP otherwise, where R is a random whole number between 0 and 255 inclusive, with uniform probability. Punishment 60 + (20 × Sum of positive stat modifiers of the foe). If BP is greater than 200, it becomes 200. Pursuit 80 if the foe switches out during that turn, 40 otherwise. Return User's Happiness × 2 ÷ 5, rounded down. If BP is 0, it becomes 1. Revenge 120 if the targeted Pokemon did damage to the user, 60 otherwise. Reversal 200 if CP is between 0 and 1, 150 if CP is between 2 and 5, 100 if CP is between 6 and 12, 80 if CP is between 13 and 21, 40 if CP is between 22 and 42, and 20 if CP is between 43 and 64, where CP = User's Current HP × 64 ÷ User's Total HP, rounded down. Rollout If Defense Curl was used by the user in any of the previous turns, then 60 for the first turn that Rollout is used, followed by 120, 240, 480 and 960 for the second, third, fourth and fifth turns, respectively. If Defense Curl was not used by the user in any of the previous turns, then 30 for the first turn that Rollout is used, then 60, 120, 240, and 480 for the second, third, fourth and fifth turns, respectively. If Rollout fails, BP restarts from 60 or 30 in its next usage. SmellingSalt 120 if the foe is paralyzed (and is healed from paralysis afterwards), 60 otherwise. Spit Up 100 if one Stockpile was used, 200 if two Stockpiles were used, 300 if three Stockpiles were used, 0 otherwise. Stomp 130 if the foe used the move Minimize, 65 otherwise. Triple Kick 10 in the first kick, 20 in the second kick, 30 in the third kick. Trump Card 40 if P is at least 4, 50 if P is 3, 60 if P is 2, 80 if P is 1, and 200 if P is 0, where P is the PP of Trump Card after being used. Wake-Up Slap 120 if the foe is asleep (and is healed from sleep afterwards), 60 otherwise. Water Spout*** 150 × User's Current HP ÷ User's Max HP, rounded down. Weather Ball 100 if the weather is Sunny Day, Rain Dance, Sandstorm, Hail, or Fog, 50 otherwise. Wring Out 1 + (120 × Foe's Current HP ÷ Foe’s Max HP), rounded down.

*** - Exact BP not confirmed.

**Section 2B - Items that affect Base Power**

The following items equipped to the user provide the following boost to the IT multiplier: Item name IT multiplier Muscle Band 1.1 if the move used is physical, 1 otherwise. Wise Glasses 1.1 if the move used is special, 1 otherwise. Type-boosting items, plates and incenses 1.2 if the move used is of the same type as the type that the item, plate or incense boosts, 1 otherwise. Adamant Orb 1.2 if the user is Dialga and the move used is Steel- or Dragon-type, 1 otherwise. Lustrous Orb 1.2 if the user is Palkia and the move used is Water- or Dragon-type, 1 otherwise. Griseous Orb 1.2 if the user is Giratina and the move used is Ghost- or Dragon-type, 1 otherwise. Any other item 1.

**Section 2C - User Abilities that affect Base Power**

The following abilities provide the following numbers to the UA multiplier if the user has one of them: User ability UA multiplier Rivalry 1.25 if the user is of the same gender as the targeted Pokemon, 0.75 if the user is of the opposite gender of the targeted Pokemon, 1 otherwise. Reckless 1.2 if the user uses a recoil move, 1 otherwise. Iron Fist 1.2 if the user uses a punching move, 1 otherwise. Blaze 1.5 if the user uses a Fire move and its current HP is less than 1/3 of its maximum HP (rounded down), 1 otherwise. Overgrow 1.5 if the user uses a Grass move and its current HP is less than 1/3 of its maximum HP (rounded down), 1 otherwise. Torrent 1.5 if the user uses a Water move and its current HP is less than 1/3 of its maximum HP (rounded down), 1 otherwise. Swarm 1.5 if the user uses a Bug move and its current HP is less than 1/3 of its maximum HP (rounded down), 1 otherwise. Technician 1.5 if the user uses a move with BP at most 60, 1 otherwise. All other user abilities 1.

**Section 2D - Foe Abilities that affect Base Power**

The following abilities provide the following numbers to the FA multiplier if the foe has one of them: Foe ability FA multiplier Thick Fat 0.5 if the user is using an Ice or Fire move, 1 otherwise. Heatproof 0.5 if the user is using a Fire move, 1 otherwise. Dry Skin 1.25 if the user is using a Fire move, 1 otherwise. All other foe abilities 1.

**Section 3 - The Attack and Special Attack stats and their Modifiers**

The Attack and Special Attack stats can also be changed throughout the match by various things.

[Sp]Atk = Stat × SM × AM × IM

where: Stat The normal Attack or Special Attack stat. SM The stat modifier multiplier. See Section 3A for more information. AM The ability modifier. See Section 3B for a list of abilities that change the attacking stats. IM The item modifier. See Section 3C for a list of items that change the attacking stats.

As we said for the calculation of the Base Power, the above multiplication is also performed from left to right, rounding down before performing the next one.

**Section 3A - The Stat Modifier Multipliers**

Each stat (excluding HP) has a stat modifier which is a whole number between -6 and 6 inclusive. This stat modifier starts from 0 and is changed by various moves like Swords Dance and Defense Curl. Some attacks can also change either the user’s stat modifier or that of the foe as a secondary effect, like Overheat and Shadow Ball.

The effect of SM is the following: Stat Modifier SM multiplier Decimal Approximate -6 2/8 0.25 -5 2/7 0.2857 -4 2/6 0.3333 -3 2/5 0.4 -2 2/4 0.5 -1 2/3 0.6667 0 2/2 1 +1 3/2 1.5 +2 4/2 2 +3 5/2 2.5 +4 6/2 3 +5 7/2 3.5 +6 8/2 4

A few points: Critical Hits If the Stat Modifier for Attack or Special Attack is less than zero, SM is made equal to 1 if the attack hits for a critical hit. Also, if the Stat Modifier for Defense or Special Defense is greater than zero, SM is made equal to 1 if the attack hits for a critical hit. Unaware If the user has the ability Unaware, SM for Defense or Special Defense of the foe is made equal to 1. If the foe has the ability Unaware, SM for Attack or Special Attack of the user is made equal to 1. Simple If any Pokemon has the ability Simple, SM conforms to a different chart, as shown below. Stat Modifier SM multiplier Decimal Approximate -3 to -6 2/8 0.25 -2 2/6 0.3333 -1 2/4 0.5 0 2/2 1 +1 4/2 2 +2 6/2 3 +3 to +6 8/2 4

**Section 3B - Abilities that change the Attack or Special Attack stat**

Here is a list of abilities that modify the Attack or Special Attack stat of the user, which affect the AM multiplier:

Abilities that affect the Attack stat: Ability name AM multiplier Pure Power 2. Huge Power 2. Flower Gift 1.5 if Sunny Day is in effect, AM = 1 otherwise. Guts 1.5 if the user is paralyzed, poisoned, burned, or asleep, AM = 1 otherwise. Hustle 1.5 (and physical moves have 80% accuracy). Slow Start 0.5 if the user has been in the battlefield for less than 5 turns, AM = 1 otherwise. Other abilities 1.

If there are two simultaneous boosts in the Attack stat, first apply the attacking Pokemon's ability boost, then the allies ability boost.

Abilities that affect the Special Attack stat: Ability name AM multiplier Plus 1.5 if the partner has ability Minus, 1 otherwise. Minus 1.5 if the partner has ability Plus, 1 otherwise. Solar Power 1.5 if Sunny Day is in effect (and loses 1/8 of HP per turn), 1 otherwise. Other abilities 1.

**Section 3C - Items that change the Attack or Special Attack stat**

Here is a list of items that modify the Attack or Special Attack stat of the user, which affect the IM multiplier:

Items that affect the Attack stat: Item name IM multiplier Choice Band 1.5 (the user can't use any other move). Light Ball 2 if the user is Pikachu, 1 otherwise. Thick Club 2 if the user is Cubone or Marowak, 1 otherwise. Other items 1.

Items that affect the Special Attack stat: Item name IM multiplier Choice Specs 1.5 (the user can't use any other move). Light Ball 2 if the user is Pikachu, 1 otherwise. Soul Dew 1.5 if the user is Latios or Latias, 1 otherwise. Deepseatooth 2 if the user is Clamperl, 1 otherwise. Other items 1.

**Section 4 - The Defense and Special Defense stats and their Modifiers**

Various changes can also be performed to the Defense and Special Defense stats of the foe during a match.

In this case, there aren't many things that can change the Defense or Special Defense stats:

[Sp]Def = Stat × SM × Mod × SX

where: Stat The normal Defense or Special Defense stat. SM The stat modifier multiplier. See Section 3A for more information. SX 0.5 if the move used by the user is Selfdestruct or Explosion, otherwise 1. Mod A modifier depending on a few factors. These are as follows:

**Defense modifiers:**

Name Modifier Metal Powder 1.5 if the foe is Ditto, is holding the item Metal Powder and has not used the move Transform. Marvel Scale 1.5 if the foe has the ability Marvel Scale and is paralysed, poisoned, burned, asleep, or frozen.

**Special Defense modifiers:**

Name Modifier Sandstorm 1.5 if Sandstorm is in effect and the foe is of Rock-type. Soul Dew 1.5 if the foe is Latios or Latias and is holding the item Soul Dew. Metal Powder 1.5 if the foe is Ditto, is holding the item Metal Powder and has not used the move Transform. Deepseascale 2 if the foe is Clamperl and is holding the item Deepseascale. Flower Gift 1.5 if one of the foes has the ability Flower Gift and Sunny Day is in effect.

Otherwise, Mod = 1.

Again, remember to multiply from left to right and round down after each multiplication.

If there are two simultaneous boosts in Mod, first apply the ability boost, then the item boost, and finally the Sandstorm boost.

If the Defense or Special Defense stat is equal to zero after all these modifiers, it becomes 1 instead.

**Section 5 - The First Modifier to the Damage Formula**

This section will explain the function of Mod1, the first modifier to the damage formula.

Mod1 = BRN × RL × TVT × SR × FF

where: BRN The Burn modifier RL The Reflect/Light Screen modifier TVT The 2v2 modifier SR The Sunny Day/Rain Dance modifier FF The Flash Fire modifier

BRN is 0.5 if the move performed is physical, the user is affected by the burn special condition and the user's ability is not Guts, and 1 otherwise.

RL is:

- 0.5 if the move performed is physical, the foe has setup a Reflect and the game is 1vs1.
- 0.5 if the move performed is special, the foe has setup a Light Screen and the game is 1vs1.
- 2/3 if the move performed is physical, the foe has setup a Reflect and the game is 2v2.
- 2/3 if the move performed is special, the foe has setup a Light Screen and the game is 2v2.
- 1 otherwise.

TVT is 0.75 if the game is 2v2 and the move used hits more than one Pokemon, and 1 otherwise. Note: These moves don't always hit for 75% damage. Research on what conditions trigger the 75% damage is being carried out.

SR is:

- 1.5 if Sunny Day is in effect and the move is of Fire-type.
- 1.5 if Rain Dance is in effect and the move is of Water-type.
- 0.5 if Sunny Day is in effect and the move is of Water-type.
- 0.5 if Rain Dance is in effect and the move is of Fire-type.
- 1 otherwise.

Yet again, it must be emphasized that the order of the multiplication must be as written above.

**Section 6 - The Second Modifier to the Damage Formula**

This section explains what affects Mod2, the second modifier of the damage formula.

Mod2 is

- 1.3 if the user is holding the item Life Orb.
- 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, ..., 2 if the user is holding the item Metronome and has used the same move once, twice, three times, four times, ... etc. consecutively.
- 1.5 if the user is attacking with the move Me First.
- 1 otherwise.

**Section 7 - The Third Modifier to the Damage Formula**

Finally, we come to the third and final modifier to the damage formula, Mod3.

Mod3 = SRF × EB × TL × TRB

where: SRF The Solid Rock/Filter modifier EB The Expert Belt modifier TL The Tinted Lens modifier TRB The type-resisting Berry modifier

SRF is 0.75 if the foe's ability is Solid Rock or Filter and the move used is super effective against it, and 1 otherwise.

EB is 1.2 if the user is holding the item Expert Belt and the move used is super effective against the foe, and 1 otherwise.

TL is 2 if the user's ability is Tinted Lens and the move used is not very effective against the foe, and 1 otherwise.

TRB is:

- 0.5 if the foe is holding one of the type resisting Berries and the move used is super effective and of the same type as the type that the Berry knocks down.
- 0.5 if the foe is holding Chilan Berry and the move used is Normal-type.
- 1 otherwise.

**Section 8 - Exceptional Cases**

The eighth and final section will concern moves that do not follow the damage formula to the rule.

- Doom Desire and Future Sight use a slightly different variation of the damage formula for the calculation of the damage dealt two turns after they are used. They use the Special Defense stat of the foe that was targeted when the move was used. Type1 and Type2 are also both equal to 1 irrespective of the type of the Pokemon that is being dealt damage.
- When Spit Up is used, the variable R in the damage formula (i.e. the random number between 85 and 100) is always taken to be 100.
- Pain Split does not even do damage. The user's remaining HP and that of the foe are averaged and rounded down, and then both are set to this value.
- There are certain moves that do not use the usual damage formula to determine the damage done to the foe. Here is a list of them, and how to determine the damage dealt by each: Bide Damage is equal to twice the damage received during the last two turns to the last Pokemon attacking the user. Counter Damage is equal to twice the damage received from the last Pokemon attacking the user during that turn, if the move used was physical. Dragon Rage Damage is always 40. Endeavor Damage is equal to the foe's remaining HP minus the user's remaining HP. It fails if this number is not positive. Fissure, Guillotine, Horn Drill and Sheer Cold Damage is equal to the foe's maximum HP (even if the foe is behind a substitute, in which case this amount of damage is dealt to the substitute instead). Metal Burst Damage is equal to 1.5 times the damage received from the last Pokemon attacking the user during that turn. Fails if that Pokemon is your partner. Mirror Coat Damage is equal to twice the damage received from the last Pokemon attacking the user during that turn, if the move used was special. Night Shade Damage is equal to the user's Level. Psywave Damage is equal to (R + 5) × Level ÷ 10, rounded down, where R is a random whole number between 0 and 10 inclusive with uniform probability, and Level is the user's Level. Seismic Toss Damage is equal to the user's Level. SonicBoom Damage is always 20. Super Fang Damage is equal to half the foe's remaining HP, rounded down. (If this damage is 0, it becomes 1 instead.)

### #416

Posted 15 April 2012 - 03:11 PM

### #417

Posted 15 April 2012 - 03:59 PM

**RMS**was a passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912 after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton, England to New York City. The sinking of

*Titanic**Titanic*caused the deaths of 1,514 people in one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history. She was the largest ship afloat at the time of her maiden voyage. One of three

*Olympic*class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, she was built between 1909–11 by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. She carried 2,223 people.

Her passengers included some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as over a thousand emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere seeking a new life in North America. The ship was designed to be the last word in comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, libraries, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. She also had a powerful wireless telegraph provided for the convenience of passengers as well as for operational use. Though she had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, she lacked enough lifeboats to accommodate all of those aboard. Due to outdated maritime safety regulations, she carried only enough lifeboats for 1,178 people – slightly more than half of the number travelling on the maiden voyage and one-third her total passenger and crew capacity.

After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912,

*Titanic*called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading westwards towards New York.

^{[2]}On 14 April 1912, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 pm (ship's time; GMT−3). The glancing collision caused

*Titanic*'s hull plates to buckle inwards in a number of locations on her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea. Over the next two and a half hours, the ship gradually filled with water and sank. Passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partly filled. A disproportionate number of men – over 90% of those in Second Class – were left aboard due to a "women and children first" protocol followed by the officers loading the lifeboats. Just before 2:20 am

*Titanic*broke up and sank bow-first with over a thousand people still on board. Those in the water died within minutes from hypothermia caused by immersion in the freezing ocean. The 710 survivors were taken aboard from the lifeboats by RMS

*Carpathia*a few hours later.

The disaster was greeted with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that had led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety today. Many of the survivors lost all of their money and possessions and were left destitute; many families, particularly those of crew members from Southampton, lost their primary bread-winners. They were helped by an outpouring of public sympathy and charitable donations. Some of the male survivors, notably the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, were accused of cowardice for leaving the ship while people were still on board, and they faced social ostracism.

The wreck of

*Titanic*remains on the seabed, gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since its rediscovery in 1985, thousands of artefacts have been recovered from the sea bed and put on display at museums around the world.

*Titanic*has become one of the most famous ships in history, her memory kept alive by numerous books, folk songs, films, exhibits and memorials.

**Why did I post that? It is exactly 100 years since Titanic officially sank and 100 years and a day since Titanic started to sink.**

### #419

Posted 15 April 2012 - 05:01 PM

command not found: Fail

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### #420

Posted 20 April 2012 - 07:24 AM

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