This happened on my son's PC, he has a laptop with both an integrated Intel video and an nVidia graphics processor. I had to right-click on the Minecraft Launcher icon and select 'Run with graphics processor' -> 'Integrated video'. For some weird reason the launcher will not display properly if he runs the launcher with the 'High-performance Video' option.
Here's a tip: Even though I'm running the launcher with my Intel integrated graphics card, the Minecraft game is still playing through my high performance graphics card. That's because they're two separate programs. MinecraftLauncher.exe is the Minecraft Launcher, and the Minecraft game runs through javaw.exe.
Hope that helps!