More seriously - very similar to ThreeEightius.
I usually start with a couple of chests - I'm usually stripmining at the start, so 1 for cobble, 1 for everything else.
When I'm a bit more set up, I usually have:
"Cobble+stone" (includes stone slabs, cobble stairs, fence, etc; those are down in the lower right slots of the chest) - and later, 2 separate chests for these.
"Blox" (all blocks that don't go elsewhere)
"Oograh" (everything "natural" - plants, saplings, seeds, food, mob drops), tools (includes weapons, armour)
"Ore" (not just the actual ore blocks, but - diamond, iron, gold, lapis, redstone, coal (in ingots, ore, blocks or whatever)
"Wood" logs, planks, stairs, ladders, fence, etc.
"Dungeon/rail" for saddles, nametags, disks, horse armour, rails of all kinds, minecarts
I often add one of "Sand/Stone" ie sand and sandstone; I usually keep glass in that too.
"Cobble+stone" is usually split into two later on. And when those are full, I tuck more chests of cobble or stone underneath.
"Nether" after I've been there, and fairly soon after that, the "Netherrack" gets split into another chest. Or should that be aNether chest? :-)
"Enchanty things" for ench books, and stuff-to-enchant (unenchanted diamond items, waiting for the best enchant to pop up)
I keep potions separately, near the brewing stuff. At first a single chest for all potions plus the bottles and ingredient items; later I create chests e.g. "Speed and fire resist", "Night vision and invis"... depending what I'm up to.
On recent games I've added a couple more: "Not stone" for diorite, andersite, and granite, and "Coloured stuff" for dyed terracotta, wool, glass/panes,dyes, etc.
I also usually have a chest labelled "X" or something, for 'things I am currently working on' / items that don't really fit elsewhere. For example, wither skulls / beacon, totems of undying, redstone repeaters, pistons, golden apples, hoppers. This chest can also be a dumping ground, when I'm in too much of a hurry to put things in their proper place.
Others, situational; for example, in the game below, I have "Beef/leather/mutton" because I was breeding those guys, "More oograh" because I was growing a lot of potato/carrot/wheat to trade villagers, and "spare set" for another lot of armour I was putting mending on,
My wool is outside, by the sheep; I keep most of the crop stuff at the farm too.
The reason for "Oog" = Oograh is, in the Discworld series of books (by Terry Pratchett), trolls call pretty much everything that isn't stone "oograh" - they do not really distinguish between trees, plants, humans, animals - it's all the same to them, just 'green stuff'. So, it's pretty much 'living items' or ex-living items.